The gymnasium was in the Hellenistic period a symbol of Greek culture and represented the Hellenic way of life. Interestingly, a Ptolemaic sovereign founded in Athens – the most cultural famous city and which already had gymnasiums like The Lyceum and the Academy – a new building at a date still unknown and whose location is not easy. This article aims to retrace the political context of the Athenian city in the third century in an attempt to identify who was the Ptolemy’s benefactor of the city.